MALASPINA GLACIER 49 glacier from the Yahtse to the base of Mt. St. Elias; and he made several excursions out upon the ice and to the bordering mountain side. From this comprehensive study he has given us an account of t.tn's remarkable ice plateau which has not since been improved upon; he made a general map (PI. XI) which is the basis for all others; and he showed clearly that the Malaspina represented a hitherto unrecognized type of glacier to which he gave the name piedmont glacier. In 1897 two expeditions started from Yakutat Bay with the object of ascending Mount St. Elias. Both crossed the Malaspina Glacier to the mountain base, using the glacier as a highway of travel as Russell had done. One of these, led by H. C. Bryant, was forced to abandon the attempt to reach the summit of the mountain, and unfortunately no description of the results obtained has been published. The other, led by Prince Luigi, Duke of the Abruzzi, succeeded in ascending to the summit, of St. Elias, and in the report of the expedition1 there is some description of the glacial phenomena, and some excellent photographs by Vittorio Sella are published. Our own observations of Malaspina Glacier are principally upon the eastern edge where we traversed portions of its surface and some of its tributaries in 1905 and 1906, examining more distant parts of the glacier with field glasses in these years and in 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1913 and seeing parts of the western edge from the ocean in 1904 and 1910. For the sake of completeness, however, we shall review the conditions in the whole glacier, dealing with the western part of Malaspina briefly, except where we present fresh facts and discuss new interpretations of conditions there and more fully with the eastern portions where personal observations enable us to write with greater confidence. GTJTOT, TTWDALL, LEBBBT, AGASBIZ AND SBWABD GLACEQBS The western tributaries of the Malaspina (shown in Fig. 2 and PL XI) have been observed by the authors of this book only from a distance. No recent advances of these glaciers, similar to that of the eastern tributaries of the Malaspina described in this chapter, are known to have taken place. As the western glaciers are liable to future advances, similar to that of Marvine Glacier, it has been deemed proper to describe their history so far as it is known, especially as we are able to call attention to evidence of older advances, not previously summarized. Guyot Glacier seems to have been severely crevassed from rapid normal movement throughout recent times and there are no known changes aside from the possible great advance above referred to. Tyndall Glacier was apparently rather inactive in 1886-88, more active and crevassed in 1891, and perhaps not as active in 1897. The map published by the New York Times Expeditiona and the Topham Expedition8 indicate that Tyndall Glacier was not impassably crevassed in 1886 and 1888, for the routes of these parties go up near the middle of the glacier. A photograph from the Chaix Hills, taken by Russell in 1891, reproduced here as PL XII, A, shows such severely crevassed ice along the route followed three years before by the Topham party that a renewal of activity between 1888 and 1891 is thought * Filippo de Filippi, The Ascent of Mount St. Elias by H. R, H. Prince Luigi Amedeo di Savoia, Duke of the Abruzzi, London, 1900. • Seton Karr, H. W., Shores and Alps of Alaska, London, 1887, map on p. 87. 1 See Broke, George, With Sack and Stock in Alaska, London, 1891, map facing p. 61.